Food waste, namely wet waste, is a part of urban domestic waste, which has both resource attributes and pollutant attributes. Food waste in China has the characteristics of high organic content, high moisture content, high oil and high salt content. At the same time, food waste is difficult to preserve, easy to corrupt, difficult to collect, easy to block, difficult to clean, easy to disperse taste, difficult to transport and easy to produce insects. There are various treatment processes for food waste, including on-site treatment and centralized treatment after collection and transportation. There are many ways of centralized treatment, mainly including crushing, direct discharge, incineration, landfill, composting, anaerobic digestion, feed and biochemical treatment. At present, anaerobic digestion is the main technology adopted by most pilot cities.
Anaerobic digestion treatment refers to the decomposition of organic waste by microbial metabolism under specific anaerobic conditions, in which carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are transformed into methane and carbon dioxide, while nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other elements are retained in the residue and transformed into forms that are easily absorbed and utilized by passive plants. Anaerobic digestion technology has the advantages of high degree of reduction, economic products, can replace part of non renewable energy, can effectively reduce pathogens, high degree of automation, reliable technology and high economic benefits. It is the research focus and development direction of back-end treatment of kitchen waste in China. Incineration technology mainly makes use of the characteristics of high organic matter, oil and other flammable components in food waste, carries out certain pretreatment of food waste, and mixes certain fuels for combustion or disposal after screening and reducing waste moisture.
The kitchen treatment plant is set up independently, and the layout of the plant is messy; The odor is difficult to absorb, and the odor in the plant is heavy; The waste residue needs to be transported out for landfill, occupying a lot of land resources; Odor and wastewater need to be treated by ourselves, and there are many supporting environmental protection facilities. Most of the generated biogas is used in biogas boilers or biogas generators. However, due to the problems of excessive steam output of biogas boilers and unstable operation of biogas generators, some biogas is even directly vented and burned in the flare, resulting in a waste of resources; Independent projects have poor sanitary environment and high overall investment and operation costs. In view of the above problems, in recent years, the collaborative treatment of anaerobic fermentation and other treatment methods has gradually become a new research direction, and the collaborative treatment of incineration and anaerobic fermentation is one of the main research hotspots in China. The collaborative treatment of domestic waste incineration power plant and kitchen waste has also become the main technical direction of new projects such as vein Industrial Park and capacity expansion and reconstruction projects of incineration power plant.
2、 Collaborative treatment technology of anaerobic fermentation of food waste and domestic waste incineration
The collaborative treatment of kitchen waste treatment plant and domestic waste incineration plant is mainly reflected in the collaborative treatment of plant layout, production management, energy materials and three wastes treatment, so as to realize process coordination, management coordination and public infrastructure coordination, and form industrial coupling, resource sharing and recycling.
The patent layout is mainly focused on the treatment of energy materials and three wastes. The conventional collaborative process is shown in Table 1: mainly reflected in the treatment of anaerobic fermented biogas residue by incineration equipment, the treatment of domestic waste leachate by anaerobic fermentation, the use of biogas produced by anaerobic fermentation for incineration power generation, the use of incineration waste heat for heating of anaerobic fermentation equipment, the incineration purification of odor produced by anaerobic fermentation through incineration equipment, the combination of waste liquid and harmless treatment Share public facilities, anaerobic fermentation, impurity incineration, etc.
3、 Key patent analysis
Due to the late industrialization research, the collaborative treatment technology of anaerobic fermentation of food waste and domestic waste incineration has less relevant patent layout. Before 2010, it was mainly concentrated in Japan. In 1975, Japanese patent application jps5219475a (publication number, the same below) anaerobic fermented the leachate of waste incineration plant together with food waste, and burned biogas residue and biogas, The prototype of collaborative treatment of food waste anaerobic fermentation and domestic waste incineration has initially taken shape. After many years, relevant research has not been paid attention to and is at a standstill. Until 2005-2008, Japanese patent applications jp2006297210a, jp2008221142a and jp2009220087a carried out further research from the aspects of anaerobic fermentation biogas instead of incineration fuel, incineration waste heat to provide heat for anaerobic fermentation, and combined incineration of food waste impurities. After 2011, with higher and higher requirements for environmental sanitation and higher investment in the field of food waste treatment in China, the collaborative treatment technology of anaerobic fermentation of food waste and domestic waste incineration has gradually become an important research direction of food waste treatment in China, the distribution of relevant domestic patents has gradually increased, and the Research of Everbright environmental protection (formerly Everbright environmental protection) in the collaborative treatment of incineration and anaerobic fermentation is at the leading level in China, The patent application cn102950137a applied for in 2011 is the first domestic patent explicitly involving the collaborative treatment method of food waste in waste incineration power plant in China. It has made systematic research and improvement in four aspects: the incineration of food waste impurities and biogas residue, the incineration and utilization of biogas and biogas residue, the use of biogas as as CNG vehicle fuel and the waste heat steam in waste incineration power plant as the heat source of high-temperature fermentation, In 2019, we applied for cn210023209u, cn210125627u and cn110976472a to layout the relevant methods and equipment, and further optimized the collaborative treatment process in terms of anaerobic fermentation odor incineration, waste liquid CO treatment and equipment sharing. In recent years, enterprises such as Zhoushan wangneng environmental protection energy Co., Ltd. and Wuhan Longjing Environmental Protection Engineering Co., Ltd. have also made corresponding layout in China in the coordination of energy materials and three wastes treatment (cn106642133a, cn110976472a, cn105798050). As of August 2020, 11 of the patent applications involved biogas residue incineration, 11 involved biogas combustion and power generation, and 8 involved incineration waste heat for heating anaerobic fermentation equipment. The above three are also the most conventional Collaborative Methods in the collaborative treatment of incineration and anaerobic digestion. The design of wastewater, waste gas and equipment is a new direction of integrated and collaborative research in recent years.
The collaborative treatment of various organic wastes and various treatment technologies is a new development direction of anaerobic fermentation. The combined treatment of incineration and anaerobic fermentation organically combines the anaerobic fermentation of kitchen waste and domestic waste incineration power generation from four aspects: plant layout, production management, energy materials and three wastes treatment, resulting in economic and environmental benefits of 1 + 1 > 2.
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