In recent years, with the accelerating process of social economy and urbanization, people's quality of life and level are getting higher and higher. Similarly, the output of garbage in people's daily production and life is also increasing. Garbage incineration is used for centralized treatment of garbage. With the help of waste incineration, we can not only reduce the accumulation of waste, but also realize the secondary utilization of resources. In the long-term continuous operation of waste incineration boiler, it is easy to have various faults, so relevant staff need to strengthen the fault analysis and troubleshooting to provide guarantee for the stable operation of waste incineration boiler.
1. Factors affecting the long-term stable operation of waste incinerator
1.1 grate failure
At present, the most widely used incinerator in the process of waste incineration in China is the grate type boiler. Heat resistant cast steel is the main material of this grate type waste incineration boiler. It completes the incineration of various production and domestic waste through hydraulic drive. Therefore, the fault problem of grate type waste incineration boiler also has distinct characteristics . In the long-term operation of waste incineration boiler, the furnace row failure is the most typical problem, which is manifested in astringent and slow action, easy blockage and deviation in the boiler and uncoordinated operation of reasoning mechanical system. The main reasons for these failures are the excessive load-bearing capacity of the boiler in long-term operation, coupled with the lack of standardization and rationality of the maintenance work carried out by the boiler maintenance personnel, which accelerates the aging degree of the waste incineration boiler and reduces the quality of the boiler.
In the structure of accessories and parts of waste incineration boiler, the grate is the core accessory. Once the grate of waste incineration boiler fails, the resulting overhaul and maintenance cost is a huge expenditure. In case of mechanical failure of the grate of the waste incineration boiler, even the most basic push grate problem will greatly increase the workload of the boiler, and in serious cases, the waste incineration boiler may not operate normally. The relevant maintenance personnel of the waste incineration boiler must carry out the inspection of the grate with a serious, careful and cautious attitude, because a little carelessness will cause great economic losses. However, in the actual process of boiler troubleshooting, the maintenance personnel will still ignore the inspection of grate, I-beam and other accessories in the air chamber, and can not carefully observe the working operation of the air hole. Generally speaking, all failures of the waste incineration boiler are basically caused by the inadequate maintenance work carried out by the relevant maintenance personnel during the shutdown of the boiler. In addition, the professional ability of maintenance personnel is limited, and their professional occupation is not rich enough. The wrong operation concept of waste incinerator makes various faults occur in the operation of boiler. For example, the blockage of the air hole of the grate is caused by the failure of the maintenance personnel to seriously perform the maintenance duties, and the accumulated ash at the air hole is not cleaned in time. In addition, when carrying out the maintenance of the grate of waste incineration boiler, the maintenance personnel need to focus on the air pressure and temperature in the furnace to ensure that they are within the normal and reasonable range and effectively avoid the occurrence of grate failure.
1.2 ash accumulation and blockage in flue of waste incinerator
During the long-term operation of the waste incineration boiler, the blockage of ash accumulation on the heating surface and flue will reduce the stability of the boiler operation. When the working operation time of the boiler reaches 15 days, there will be obvious ash accumulation on the heating surface of the flue in the waste incinerator. The main reason for this problem is that the flue gas temperature around the boiler evaporator is too high, while the flue gas temperature of other equipment does not change, and the boiler is overloaded during production, resulting in high-temperature adhesive ash deposition. During the operation of waste incineration boiler, under the action of air hole operation, many small waste technologies on the grate will enter the high-temperature flue. At the same time, in order to fully burn all kinds of waste, the staff responsible for waste incineration will gradually increase the disturbance capacity of flue gas and burn the remaining waste again with the help of secondary air, which will aggravate the ash blockage in the heating area of flue. Generally speaking, the ash on the heating area of the boiler flue presents dressing as a whole. It is difficult to clean it with soot blowing for a long time. These ash deposits are likely to increase the resistance of the tube bundle, and in serious cases, it will also cause the complete blockage of the flue, resulting in the forced shutdown of the waste incinerator.
1.3 ejector failure
Pusher is an important part of waste incineration boiler. In the process of waste incineration, the pusher plays a role of transfer, which is of great positive significance for the stable operation of waste incineration boiler. During the operation of the waste incinerator, once a fault occurs, it is difficult to take effective treatment measures to eliminate the fault immediately. Therefore, the maintenance personnel should comprehensively and carefully check the operation of the ejector in advance with the help of the activity experiment. However, there is a disadvantage of this inspection method, that is, it has no effect of garbage load and high-temperature expansion, and the accuracy of the results needs to be considered. The moving parts are blocked, the rolling parts are damaged and the limiter has problems, which leads to the asynchrony of the ejector under the action of a variety of adverse factors. Under the long-term overload operation of the ejector, the maintenance personnel do not carry out maintenance in time, and there are certain quality problems in the waste incineration boiler equipment, which may reduce the service efficiency of the ejector. In addition, if there is large and hard waste in the boiler during the operation of waste incineration boiler, it is also likely to cause the failure of ejector. In daily work, it is not difficult for relevant managers to find through the early operation records of waste incineration boiler that once the ejector fails, the boiler will not operate normally and the waste incineration treatment will not be carried out. In view of this situation, the boiler must be shut down for treatment, thus reducing the use and operation efficiency of the boiler.
2. Effective measures to optimize the stable operation of waste incinerator
2.1 take measures to prevent coking and ash accumulation
The contents of glass and salt in the production and domestic waste are relatively high. These wastes will be melted under the continuous action of high temperature, resulting in coking and ash accumulation in the boiler, which will not only reduce the heat production efficiency of the waste incineration boiler, but also hinder the smooth circulation of the boiler throat. Under the long-term influence, it will cause the tube explosion of the boiler heat exchanger, and then interfere with the normal operation of the waste incineration boiler. Therefore, according to this situation, the relevant staff earnestly do a good job in the identification of boiler coking and ash deposition, and conduct a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of the statistical coking field data, so as to take effective treatment measures to solve it.
2.2 equipment maintenance
In view of the existence of grate failure and ejector failure during the long-term operation of waste incineration boiler, relevant maintenance personnel shall regularly carry out the maintenance of equipment accessories and parts, fully understand and master the operation of relevant parts, and find problems in time, so as to take effective treatment measures to solve them. At the same time, do a good job in equipment maintenance, replace aging and severely damaged parts, and regularly guarantee the boiler to ensure the normal operation of all accessories in the boiler.
2.3 operation management
Firstly, the inspectors and relevant responsible personnel need to carry out a detailed analysis of the temperature in the boiler, the basic structure and the air distribution in the working and operation process, and determine the coking control and treatment method of the throat of the boiler incineration flue according to these comprehensive influencing factors. Specifically, combined with the use needs of waste incineration boilers, adjust and transform the operation management methods and operation modes of boilers, and apply advanced science, technology and management means to promote the long-term and stable operation of waste incineration boilers. For example, reasonably control the outlet temperature of the furnace and control it within the range of 850 ° C to 950 ° C. while accelerating the efficient decomposition of chemical substances in waste, ensure that the additional amount meets the actual requirements of waste incineration. Furthermore, the staff responsible for waste incineration scientifically adjust the air volume used for primary incineration and secondary air volume in combination with seasonal characteristics and different waste fermentation properties. On this basis, combined with the pressure difference of horizontal flue, determine the soot blowing times of soot blower, so as to ensure the rationality of soot blowing effect and effectively avoid the corrosion of soot blowing pipeline. Finally, the staff need to change the ash outlet of the flue to the ash outlet to reduce the circulation of fly ash in the boiler chamber and better improve the coking of the heating surface of the flue, so as to realize the normal operation of the boiler.
To sum up, in the long-term operation process of waste incineration boiler, it is disturbed by a variety of adverse factors, which brings various fault problems. Boiler managers and relevant staff should make specific analysis according to specific problems, actively find corresponding solutions, and constantly reduce the load of boiler, so as to provide guarantee for the stable operation of waste incineration boiler.
(some articles on this website are collected from the Internet, such as infringement contact deletion)