Thrift is a virtue. Energy conservation is a basic national policy. Energy saving and efficiency improvement is the most effective, direct and economical means to achieve the goal of "double carbon". Since the eleventh five year plan, China has issued a series of policies and regulations, innovatively implemented energy conservation, pollution reduction and carbon reduction as major projects, and has become an important starting point for the construction of ecological civilization, the transformation of development mode, economic quality and efficiency improvement. Positive results have been achieved in optimizing industrial structure, improving energy efficiency, promoting technological progress and raising public awareness.
Saving energy and improving energy efficiency can reduce the exploitation of fossil energy such as coal, oil and natural gas, so as to protect the ecosystem. To improve energy conversion efficiency, waste heat recovery and utilization, temperature matching and cascade utilization can kill many birds with one stone. Energy conservation is not to prevent people from using energy, but to improve energy efficiency, maximize output or enjoy energy services under the condition of using the same energy. For example, we should support the operation of household appliances such as refrigerators and air conditioners with as little power consumption as possible.
Establish a long-term mechanism for energy conservation
Energy conservation can play a market role, but it cannot be completely regulated by the market. Energy saving can reduce costs, the benefit of energy saving is net profit, and energy saving can improve the competitiveness of enterprises. Although higher energy prices can stimulate enterprises to save energy, energy prices cannot be adjusted because of energy conservation. It is necessary to establish a long-term mechanism for enterprises to actively save energy; We should use market means to encourage enterprises to save energy, strengthen information technology services and basic capacity-building, based on the logic of the market, believe in the strength of the market, and be coordinated by relevant subjects in the market, so as to achieve the synergistic effect of energy conservation, pollution reduction and carbon reduction.
Energy saving, pollution reduction and carbon reduction are synergistic, but not every link is the same. Energy, environment and climate have homology, and the effects of different links of energy production and consumption are different. For example, photovoltaic power generation is low-carbon, but the production of photovoltaic power generation material silicon is high energy consumption and heavy pollution. Desulfurization, denitrification and mercury removal in power plants are necessary measures to improve the quality of atmospheric environment. Up to standard discharge of sewage treatment plants can make "water clear", but they all need to increase energy consumption; Because of this, a few enterprises secretly discharge pollutants in order to "save energy". Some local practices are contrary to the original intention of energy conservation; If energy producing areas are required to reduce production, it is bound to affect the energy consumption of energy consuming areas, and even affect the "satisfaction" of residents. In order to achieve the energy "double control" index, "simplify" the distribution of power to enterprises, and even "switch off and limit power", it will inevitably affect the normal life of residents. This situation occurred in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River this spring.
The government pays attention to energy conservation because there are "failures" in some markets. For example, people who build houses want to save money in the construction process, while homeowners want to use less energy in the use of houses. Different actors may lead to "market failure" of energy conservation. The adoption of market-oriented mechanism to promote energy conservation should have the characteristics of "government guidance, supply and demand matching and win-win". Policy supply should be close to the needs of enterprises and conform to the reality of energy conservation of enterprises. All participants can benefit from the operation of market mechanism; If any kind of subjects in the implementation of the mechanism cannot benefit, the operation of the market mechanism will be affected or even unsustainable. The government should create an "open, fair and just" environment for the energy-saving market to make up for "market failure".
Scientific energy conservation, eliminate waste, and promote carbon neutralization with innovative ideas
We should adhere to scientific pollution reduction and carbon reduction to produce synergistic effects. We should optimize the energy structure and pay attention to the clean and efficient utilization of traditional energy. Oil and gas are high-quality energy and heat is low-grade energy; In some places, high-quality natural gas is used for heating, power generation and industrial waste heat, but it has not been effectively utilized, and energy-saving technology products such as ground source heat pump have not been popularized. The direct utilization of electricity and hydrogen production will reduce energy efficiency, because each conversion link will consume energy, emit pollutants and carbon dioxide. The heat of high-temperature coking in some places has not been effectively recovered; Farmers do not dare to promote the use of "low-carbon coal" and "high-efficiency briquette" in rural areas, but do not dare to use clean biomass and "fuel gas" in rural areas. These practices are unscientific. Only by adhering to the system concept can we avoid those practices that sound "tall" but impractical.
Tap the energy-saving potential from systematicness and details. Energy saving potential is not only in industry, construction, transportation and other industries, but also in the system. Restricted by the law of diminishing marginal returns, the energy-saving effect that can be obtained by investing the same funds will decline. The gap between the energy consumption of some products in China and the international advanced level is narrowing. Some high energy consuming enterprises have international advanced technology and equipment. Further energy conservation requires disruptive technological breakthroughs. With the improvement of income level, people need to "decent" work and life. They need heating in winter or air conditioning in summer. Ventilation, brightness, humidity, temperature and quiet are livable conditions. They can't often "switch off and limit power" to control energy consumption. It is imperative to develop green buildings and revise building energy-saving standards. Build a green and low-carbon transportation system, encourage low-carbon travel, and meet the needs of improving residents' welfare level with as little energy consumption as possible.
Do the right thing in the right way. To achieve "carbon peak and carbon neutralization", we should start from reducing waste and let professional things be done by special people, so as to maximize output. Energy saving service companies can provide energy-saving solutions for enterprises; The development of energy-saving service companies should seize the opportunity of "carbon peak and carbon neutralization" and promote energy-saving technology innovation and service model innovation. We should make use of new generation information technologies such as informatization and big data technology to greatly improve the intelligent level of energy management and provide strong support for the efficient operation of energy system. We should focus on key parks, key industries and key enterprises, build energy management centers and smart platforms, and tap all possible potentials of enterprises. Continuously improve the energy-saving service level in the aspects of intelligent and green energy consumption scenarios such as industry, transportation and construction, distributed energy, microgrid, energy storage, intelligent charging and discharging of electric vehicles, demand side response, etc; Develop intelligent service system, improve the efficiency of energy system, and form a new business form of energy-saving services based on energy big data.
Strengthen the innovation of technology, theory, system and mechanism, and form a long-term mechanism for energy conservation, pollution reduction and carbon reduction. With the transformation of development momentum, green and low-carbon economic transformation, energy reform and technological progress, great changes have taken place in China's economic scale and policy environment. It should be noted that there are not many energy-saving, pollution reduction and carbon reduction technologies that can make breakthroughs and promote the application in the short term. Therefore, we should strengthen efforts to overcome the "neck" technology and turn it into energy-saving performance, so as to achieve twice the result with half the effort. It should also be recognized that the construction of new power system with new energy as the main body puts forward requirements for the intelligent management of power system; Special attention should be paid to the "uncontrollability" of the power generation end and the "randomness" of the power consumption end, so as to improve the intelligent level of power regulation and allocation, so as to achieve the effects of multiple complementarity, efficient utilization, economic security and so on.
Gather sand and make a tower, gather armpits and make a coat. In the context of entering a new era, implementing the new development concept and building a new development pattern, "carbon peaking and carbon neutralization" has become an important policy guidance. We should give full play to the role of the government, enterprises, the public and third parties. Through rigid systems such as laws, regulations, standards and supervision, capacity-building such as information release, technology screening, publicity, education and training, tax policies, market transactions and the participation of third-party institutions, we should stimulate the endogenous driving force of enterprise energy conservation, mobilize the initiative and enthusiasm of enterprise energy conservation, and let enterprises pay attention to energy conservation in consciousness and make decisions on energy conservation in behavior Invest in energy conservation and form a long-term mechanism. Energy conservation should not only give play to the subjective initiative of enterprises, but also be reflected in the daily life of residents, including green and low-carbon travel, participation in waste classification, reuse of shopping bags, etc., so as to make resource conservation and environmental protection a social atmosphere and new fashion.