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Syngas power generation and exhaust treatment
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Synthetic natural gas is a technology that converts carbon-containing resources into methane using appropriate equipment based on the methanation reaction principle. China's energy resources are characterized by less oil, lean gas and rich coal. The coal resources are relatively abundant, and the use of cheap coal resources to produce natural gas is high. The energy utilization rate is high and the unit heat value is low. It is an important way to solve the contradiction between supply and demand of natural gas in China. In addition, the use of CO2 and biomass resources to produce natural gas not only broadens the use of CO2 and biomass, but also significantly reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Synthetic natural gas technology mainly includes coal direct synthesis natural gas technology, coal synthesis and natural gas production technology, biological synthesis natural gas technology, CO2 methanation synthesis natural gas technology, and coke oven gas synthesis natural gas technology.
Coal direct synthesis natural gas technology
Coal direct synthesis natural gas technology refers to the gasification of coal into coal by one step. According to the different gasification agent added during the coal methanation process, the technology can be divided into hydrogenation technology and catalytic steam conversion technology.
Coal from syngas to produce natural gas technology
The technology of producing natural gas from coal by syngas is also called steam oxidation gasification. The main reaction is divided into two steps:
1C+O2→CO2, C+ H2O→CO+H2, C+CO2→2CO;
Therefore, it is sometimes called “two-step method” coal-based natural gas technology. Its core technology is methanation technology. The process emits a large amount of heat, and the methanation reaction is a volume-reduced reaction. Therefore, it is generally carried out under low temperature and high pressure, but in order to ensure a certain The methanation rate and the reaction temperature should not be too low; the catalyst used is a nickel-based catalyst with high activity, good selectivity and low price. At present, the process has been commercialized, but the thermal efficiency is lower than the "one-step method".
Commonly used methanation reactors are fixed bed reactors and fluidized bed reactors.
Biomass natural gas technology
Biomass energy is an important renewable energy source. The biomass contains a large amount of carbonaceous materials. The use of hydrogen rich in biomass gasification to produce synthetic natural gas can not only reduce CO2 emissions due to its combustion, but also reduce the greenhouse effect. It can also improve the quality of energy and meet the requirements of China's sustainable development strategy. It is a new type of synthetic natural gas technology.
CO2 methanation synthesis natural gas technology
The world emits a large amount of CO2 every year, which causes serious pollution to the environment. CO2 is a potential carbonaceous resource. Research on CO2 methanation and synthesis of natural gas is of great significance to environmental protection and energy supply. In recent years, the CO2 methanation and synthetic natural gas technology proposed by the French chemist Paul Sabatier has attracted much attention in the world. The basic idea is to use solar power to generate electrolyzed water to produce hydrogen source. Then H2 and CO2 react as follows: CO2+4H2→CH4 +2H2O, the produced CH4 can be used as a fuel, and the CO2 produced by combustion can be re-methodized. The recycling system can solve the problem of CO2 emission and can also produce synthetic natural gas. Based on this principle, Japan plans to establish a natural gas synthesis industrial system that uses solar energy as its energy source and CO2 as a raw material for 10 years, and is currently making rapid progress. Northwestern University of China uses water vapor to select permeable membrane and Ru/Al2O3.
Coke oven gas synthesis natural gas technology
Coke oven gas synthesis technology has developed rapidly in recent years. This will solve the problem of environmental pollution and resource waste caused by coke oven gas emissions, and will also drive technological progress in the coking industry and energy industry, increase natural gas supply, and promote sustainable development.